Neuroscience explains marijuana and the brain – Gary L. Wenk

Probably the oldest reference to the cannabis plant, in a Chinese pharmacy book from 2737 B.C., is related to its use as a medicine. … By 1000 B.C., its medicinal use … had spread to India; by 500 B.C., it was familiar to the ancient Greeks. – Prof. Dr. Gary L. Wenk What drug is […]

Neuroscience explains marijuana and the brain – Gary L. Wenk

Summary of Bhagavan Das’ -ANCIENT SOLUTIONS OF MODERN PROBLEMS

Bhagavan Das has provided an outline of the fundamental principles, drawn from ancient Indian traditions of Aryan culture and Manu texts, to apply them to modern problems.

Here we have attempted to condense the principles into digestible facts while leaving some of his original words intact.

Though the original words are completely effective in itself. But, the efforts are made just to limit the time of understanding such a great philosophy.

Hope it will be helpful for students learning about Bhagavan Das.

Read more here: Bhagwan Das

Gayatri Mantra with its meaning

Om Bhur Bhuvaḥ Swaḥ Tat-savitur Vareñyaṃ Bhargo Devasya Dheemahi Dhiyo Yonaḥ Prachodayāt Meaning: O thou existence Absolute, Creator of the three dimensions, we contemplate upon thy divine light. May He stimulate our intellect and bestow upon us true knowledge.

Gayatri Mantra with its meaning

Clean your inner space

Life is playing game with death. Livings are wondering the great numbers death has already devoured. With all this chaos revolving around humanity, the precious nature of life has turned stronger than ever. The present goal of humanity is to see everyone out there safe and getting healed from the early loss of loved ones. The methods and advises to stay safe in these tough days are overflowing like the water of floods, where the safest either find place in woods or pulled back by those who care. With plenty of necessary and unnecessary advises, our mind is really burdened with the repeated occurring thoughts- “45 min exercise a day”, “consume plenty of water”, “eat green”, “don’t step out”, “cover up face and hands”, “meditate”, and so on. The formation of habit is not an easy thing. But the fear of sufferings necessarily brings us to the right habit at the right time. The fear of virus spread has caused the formation of habits easier and earlier than it would have actually took.

We are externally looking into the positive healing and wisdom. But internally, most of us are devastated in sadness, fear, confusion, and misunderstanding. To balance out internal emotions and external actions is a tough task. But it is not an impossible one. Just remember to throw the garbage out of your mind on a regular basis. In case, you failed to do so, your mind will stink and you will feel suffocated living in your own body and mind. Embrace the positivity around, and throw away the negativity of fear, non-knowing, anxiety, mood-swings, and heavy hearts. The negative elements will keep acquiring your inner space on a regular basis, you can’t avoid that. The only thing you could do is to persistently empty your mind, and let go your thoughts. This would allow you to immerse deep into freshness of positivity and good days ahead.

PS: When philosophy touches the heart earlier than brain, it becomes powerful. With this inspiration, I’m launching a new series called “Straight from heart” in which I’ll try to go deep into people’s hearts to make them feel happy and alive. If you leave a comment with your thoughts, we may be able to continue on this healing path. Thank you for taking the time to read this and for being a part of my journey.

Outlandish Freedom

In Dr. Faustus, Thomas Mann identifies the inadequacies of thinking of freedom in terms of free will. The narrator describes the paradox of freedom as being only the ability to deviate from God’s will. If that were true, then freedom is only the power to do evil. That would imply that the devil represents freedom […]

Outlandish Freedom

Problem of Indian “Schools” of Philosophy

“The constant streaming in of the thoughts of others must confine and suppress your own;  and indeed in the long run paralyze the power of thought… The inclination of most scholar is a kind of fuga vacui or vacuum suction, from the poverty of their own minds,  which forcibly draws in the thoughts of others.. It is dangerous to read about a subject before we have thought about it ourselves.. When we read, another person thinks for us;  we merely repeat his mental process…so it comes about that is anyone spends almost whole day in reading, he gradually loses the capacity for thinking…experience of the world may be looked upon as a kind of text,  to which reflection and knowledge form the commentary. Where there is a great deal of reflection and intellectual knowledge,  and a very little experience, the result is like those books which have on each page two lines of text to forty lines of commentary.”

“School” signifies the similar interest and same thought processes that bounds individuals to a particular system. With the coming up of systems, the individual literally loses its intrinsic values and become a permanent part of some well established trends. For example, Shankara is known by advaitism, Dharmakirti is identified by Buddhism, Kapila is known by Samkhya school of Indian tradition, and Gautama is particularly identified by Nyaya traditions.

Indian school of philosophy is dominating quite well in the curriculum of Philosophy Education. While professionals are repeatedly putting the same idea in a course of structured Education, stream of students are floating in the same old trends as the past students used to do. It is a major drawback that new ideas or inclusion or criticism is not being thoroughly achieved in literature of the Indian school of Philosophy. We’re just scribbling down the ideas and principles of Indian schools in order to fit them into a neatly organized philosophical traditions. The egoism that rules within traditions, compelling people to live by old thought patterns, has caused more harm than producing any good. Imagine the anguish of a student pursuing philosophy in order to truly live and enjoy the journey and contribute something new to it, only to be met with roadblocks in the form of memorizing of large textbooks and hazy literatures. To make this tough journey easier, the student would rely on readily available translated texts, only to wander further from philosophy’s explicit objective of education.

I spent the majority of my Philosophy education learning complicated philosophical terms(written in Sanskrit) and multiple theories, but every year I find myself at the same basic level because I couldn’t really memorize the terms and later found them useless. The Sutras of Nyaya or Samkhya are referenced heavily to prove worthiness of a complicated write-ups. This is only making philosophy look more dull and incomprehensible. There are very few instances when a student of Ancient Indian Philosopher would intellectually criticize or appreciate individual thoughts and works of ancient Indian saints and Philosophers. The contemporary Indian Philosophy is much better because here we have taken ourselves from a rough journey of memorizing ancient texts to the intellectual trend of analysis of individuals thoughts.

The main purpose of this short criticism of boring pattern of Indian philosophical texts is to bring justification to the real idea of philosophy education. The memorizing of texts could make us a good learner but, it could never make us a good philosopher. The value of studying philosophy comes from thoroughly scrutinizing a particular thought, applying our own ideas to it, and embarking on this quest for truth to infinity. Just because a particular school of thoughts has claimed something to be true, doesn’t bring a full stop to individual journey of quest for truth.

The real achievement in studying the ancient philosophy is to understand what has made them to claim a particular patterns of thoughts. The real achievement is in questioning everything in Universe. Socrates has influenced the youth to this wonderful art, in a similar way, we should question every aspects of philosophy, to really get deeper into a aspects of philosophy. Just relying on secondary literature doesn’t bring sense as secondary literature is very problematic and corruptible. When we directly research on primary sources, then the ideas appear simpler and thoughts flourished into a higher quality one. Thus, philosophy could do wonders only when we study the methods of individual patterns of thoughts and make a meaningful contributions to it.

At last I would quote Schopenhauer words from Essays, “Books and Reading”; “Counsels and Maxims,” p.21

“The constant streaming in of the thoughts of others must confine and suppress your own; and indeed in the long run paralyze the power of thought… The inclination of most scholar is a kind of fuga vacui or vacuum suction, from the poverty of their own minds, which forcibly draws in the thoughts of others.. It is dangerous to read about a subject before we have thought about it ourselves.. When we read, another person thinks for us; we merely repeat his mental process…so it comes about that is anyone spends almost whole day in reading, he gradually loses the capacity for thinking…experience of the world may be looked upon as a kind of text, to which reflection and knowledge form the commentary. Where there is a great deal of reflection and intellectual knowledge, and a very little experience, the result is like those books which have on each page two lines of text to forty lines of commentary.”

Reference

The story of Philosophy by Will Durant

The Art of Logic

By definition, Logic is the systematic and correct procedure of thinking. “Logy” denotes methods for acquiring knowledge on each and every discipline of art, science, music, marketing, and politics. Logic is more related to science because it well signifies the rules and principles for its applications in general life. As Francis Bacon revealed that the subject could be useful only if it’s applicable. Logic is a art because without logic it is impossible to determine the subtleties of feelings, sentiments, emotions, and well being. Logic helps to bring clarity in thoughts and mental reasonings. It establishes a pattern to reach at the results in an accurate and earliest way. The art of logic is an effort to bring informal theory to the definitions of logic. Logic simplifies the irregular path. The main use of logic is to reach at the truth. The truth has no defined path. It could be attained formally by the language of science and informally by the language of art. Science has structuralized the system of logic to an extent that sometimes truth is neglected to safeguard the patterns. Hence, the Art of Logic brings freedom to bring our own definitions and terms to the concepts of logic.

Aristotle is the pioneer in bringing logic to the world of philosophy. He has begun the applications of logic in both the theoretical and experimental world. The trend of logical movements is so established because of the correct framing of logic in accurate definitions and language. As Voltaire said, “if you wish to converse with me, define your terms.” The most common pattern of logic used in philosophy dictionary is syllogism. By the analysis of subject -predicate- and respective premises, one could reach to the conclusion.

Logic is a intellectual stimulation and the act of concept formations. By Logic, one could master the debates, arguments, and dialectical conversations. Logic helps to ease the burden of responsibility which writer face to present his ideas in a unique and reasonable way. For example, a factual description may sound less reliable than a established scientific theory including examples and practical importance.

In an overall outlook concerning the Art of logic, it is a:-

  1. An unknown journey towards known.
  2. An unspecified and unclear theory to reach clarity.
  3. A hope to make established path Universal.
  4. The Art of logic mostly signifies a-priori interest.
  5. It is a sneak-peek into the world of structures.
  6. It is a motivated steps to bring meaning to a particular theory.
  7. The action of logic is initiated to bring proper conclusions.
  8. The Art of Logic is beneficial to bring harmony between the contradictory parties.
  9. The Art of Logic produces outline to be followed in future.
  10. Logical journey is always known for its end, no matter from where it was initiated.
  11. The Art of Logic could break the pre-determined chains, to bring a different connections.
  12. The journey of logic, unfortunately, arises illogically.
  13. The Art of Logic is motivated and could begun with biased thoughts leading to unbiased conclusions.
  14. The Art of Logic highlights complexities of a situations or fields and turn the non-formal steps to simplify whole process.
  15. The Art of Logic is human-centered as it places all emotions, feelings, reflections together at a place for its logical modifications.

These were my own mental experiments to bring the Art of Logic to light. Please leave a comment if you have anything to add to this theory so that the discussion on the Art of Logic can continue. Thank you for taking the time to read this!

J. Krishnamurti Freedom from the Known-Book summary

Jiddu Krishnamurti “Freedom from the known” is a hand-book meant to transform the human life by projecting the mistakes humans are committing, in various fields of social, political, religious, personal and relationships.

Krishnamurti has focused on changing the perspective or thinking of an individual. We mostly live our life based on old beliefs, ideals, truth, circumstances, past experiences and common sayings. We mostly suffer because we try to find the solutions of fresh problems in old books, scriptures, thoughts, and beliefs. It is to be noted that for new problems, there is always a fresh solution. To get solutions, we need to change our perspectives by interpreting the various dimensions of a particular problem. For Krishnamurti, faith is righteous until it supports you in growing. In case, it is pulling you back, and causing a hindrance towards your spiritual goals, then there is no usage of keeping old faith.

In the understanding of individual and humans, krishnamurti has a little different observance. For him, individual is one who is trapped in an old conditioned psychology, beliefs, biased traditions, and self-life. And human being is one who live in a whole and equally cares for others problems. Krishnamurti sees “unknown” as those of which we aren’t aware of- “the death, poverty, after-life” is all the unknowns for which humans fears most part of their life. In understanding of all the knowns and unknowns, it is not essentials to create philosophy of life. The utter need is to understand the problems and make a daily observance of all this. We almost take ideologies for granted and often ignore the thoughts coming from our inner self. It is a greatest misfortune that Humans has turned completely used to orders and commands that they have no courage to reflect upon the inner self. For the transformation, many humans undergo through a common question- “I want to change, tell me how to.” For knowing ‘how to’, humans are seeking some other authority to take care of their problems and impose the rules upon them. Quest to knowing about self from others, would reveal about ‘others’ and not about our ‘own self’. When we are depending upon the dead authorities, then we are missing the major parts of our own potentialities. To know about self, we need to start as if we know nothing.[i]We often fear to commit the wrongs and we fail to take the right steps on our own behalf. Krishnamurti has said that, “there is no such thing as doing right and wrong when there is freedom”[ii]. If we act from our centre, our root, then fear doesn’t arise. In case, we act from our surface, then fear, miseries, troubles, disbelief, non-harmony automatically takes its form. Like Krishnamurti, there are other sages and gurus who guided us to act from our centre. The very action to act will pull us away from the unknown miseries of life.

“Acquiring knowledge” and “learning” is two different things. The process of acquiring generally deals with the past knowledge and conditions. It is accumulating the events and forming memories. Whereas the learning occurs in present living. It is mostly related to present- awareness. To look at the things with uncertainty, curiosity, freedom reveals different dimensions of it. To become confident in a subject, closes the doors for any further learning. “A confident man is a dead human being.”[iii] 

Krishnamurti has revealed the very subtle meanings of words of common usage. He has brought a different outlook on two words “concentration” and “attention”. In concentration, you look for the knowledge of a fixed subject. You are very specific and to the point for the type of knowledge to gain. In contrary, attention means complete awareness. You are so aware that you don’t differentiate between the knowledge you are gaining from the inner and outer world. You are ready to take all the learnings, study different dimensions, and still keeping space for more knowledge and awakening. Moreover, attention doesn’t exclude anything.

People talk about gaining freedom of thought. But, in reality there is no such term as ‘freedom of thought’ because there is only ‘freedom from thought’. Thought brings so many miseries, difficult times, bad memories, uncontrolled desires, pain, fear, and uncalculated goals of life. Once you are free from your thoughts, you are purely attentive and aware of life. In pure attention and awareness, you find freedom of your life.

Krishnamurti has analysed violence as a very subtle, and raised need to inquire into very depths of it.

‘When you separate yourself by belief, by Nationality, by Traditions, its breeds violence’.[iv] You are not only separating yourself from all this concepts, but also from the individuals who are part of it. You are not allowing anyone enters in your periphery who possess a certain belief, belongs to a particular Nationality, follow a particular tradition, and so on. You think that violence is physical because it creates pain. But you forget that the root cause of violence is mental. It arises mentally, and if given a space in memory to develop, it takes the physical form. Then, all the riots, misunderstandings, non-adjustments, uncultured actions take its form.

 “To live with ‘what is’ brings peace.”[v] We are often placing a comparison and different form of analysis with ‘what is’,’ ‘what was’, and ‘what must be’. Comparison causes conflicts in mind, memories, and actions. You are trapped in a dilemma of what to follow and what to avoid. This creates a total complexity in life and flushes your inner energies. In case, you want to be free from all the comparison and conflicts, then the best solution is to be in the present, and to be content with ‘what is’. Another kind of conflict arises in the process of becoming into something else. There is nothing wrong in choosing one’s ideal in life. But following it completely and losing one’s own identity is that which brings conflicts, contradictions, confusions, and pain.

“The youth of today, like all youth, are in revolt against society, and that is good thing in itself, but revolt is not freedom because when you revolt it is a reaction and the reaction sets up its own pattern and you get caught in that pattern.”[vi]Krishnamurti believes in action rather than reaction. Reaction is a representation of a pattern. It is an addition to already established contradictions. In order to come out of chain of conditioning, you are again forming other one. By reacting, participating and causing revolution, you are not bringing any change. If you want to go against something, then don’t participate or involve in it. Your very silence and non-involvement in a phenomenon are breaking the chain and disrupting the revolutions to take any further shapes.

“If your eyes are blinded with the worries, you cannot see the beauty of the sunset.”[vii]  Most of us are living in present by still revisiting the memories of past. Lack of awareness and partial attentiveness could take away the beauty of present. The mixing of past memories and present moment is very dangerous. You could get diverted from your goals without even realizing.

Krishnamurti has given a new direction to religious mind which is absence of subject- object, the observer-observed and attainment of complete awareness.

In many paragraphs, Krishnamurti has discussed about the limitations of thoughts and claims that human being has turned a slave to one’s own thought. Our thoughts are ruling our mind by provoking us into various emotions of anger, upset, pride, ego, etc. Thought brings misery by taking away the peace of a moment. To get rid of thoughts, humans need to develop the state of complete awareness. ‘In a state of complete awareness, the observer, the thinker, the centre, the ‘me’, comes to an end. In that state of attention thought begins to wither away.’[viii]  To bring awareness to our centre, we need to get rid of all “burdens of yesterday”[ix] or all memories of past. Krishnamurti’s prescription for the transformation of life is not only useful to get rid of miseries in human life but also to avoid miseries in complete universe. Overall, Krishnamurtis philosophy is way more than human transformation, it is Universal transformation.    

PS: This summary is never enough than a full reading of book. But my main purpose was only to present the main ideas mentioned in the book. If my summary has raised a tiniest of interest, curiosity, excitement to read Krishnamurti’s Philosophy, then I will believe that my effort is fruitful. Thanks for Reading!

Bibliography

Krishnamurti, Jiddu. Freedom from the Known. Rider, 2010.


[i] Page 13

[ii] Page 12

[iii] Page 19

[iv] Page 50

[v] Page 63

[vi] Page 68

[vii] Page 91

[viii] Page 107

[ix] Page 109

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