When I started thinking on this, I believed that the definition of happiness is free of unhappiness. Now let’s think on the conditions which could make us unhappy or stressful or anxious. Think of your day from Start to End– what are the areas where you feel happiness is fading away? Let me say! It might be your favourite food on the menu list; but a lesser zero in your money wallet; and it might be your dream car selling on huge discount; but you have left limited savings; and it might be the family emergency; but no fixed deposits. This is very limited example- perhaps, there are many areas where we feel dire shortage of money. What we do in such situations? Do we feel stressed out? Do we feel anxious? Do we feel like our stars are not right? Do we feel hesitate to shout help? If yes, then shall we consider it the reason for our unhappiness? If you think what I am writing here makes sense, then go on reading further, you may discover some tips to check on your happiness.
To know what could be the cause of our unhappiness, let’s check on its reason. Well! Lack of financial management is one of the strongest reason a person could feel unhappy. To define Financial Literacy, it is the basic understanding of finance management, earning checks, budgeting, savings, investments, financial stability, development, and inclusion. Although it sounds quite technical, it takes just your interest to know all this. One may say; they have got enough earnings and they are particularly not interested to put their hard earnings for the cause of future unpredictability’s. One could also say that when they try focusing on the earnings, the future liabilities would automatically be taken care of.
In all these, I would just ask you a simple question, ‘Is it wrong to secure your future?’ Even if you agree that nothing wrong could occur to you, you are not sure about the wrong things happening to others or your close relatives and friends. In such scenarios, don’t you feel to have burden of responsibility to super secure your future as well of people around you. If you feel I am not talking insane, you could go on reading further. The reason is I could be at wrong to understand the rare conditions. However, I am suitably right for the universally growing needs which people are facing today.
The basic argument is problem couldn’t be ignored just because one half of society is easily managing their life with their stable income. Here we have to consider the other halves too, which feels the need for immediate help. Thus, redefining happiness would be to check the cause of your unhappiness as well as the unhappiness of others. And so, I covered the reason for unhappiness, the problems of future happiness, and the present responsibility to secure happiness of yourself as well as others. In terms of relationship management, we could make our constant efforts to keep the network strong but in the case of money management, we need to use our wit to act smartly to deal with the unknown factors.
To summarise, Financial literacy is a serious subject of study. It is because one should have an appropriate understanding of their finances and their effective use. It is clear that we are earning not just to survive but to discover our potentialities and give it a truer meaning. Therefore, financial literacy is the source which generate an abundance meaning to your cause of earning which in sense assist you in managing the reason for your unhappiness.
Thus, read magazines, watch news, observe videos- make all kinds of efforts to understand your financial system and keep updating it with the growing trends.
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Have you ever observed a fly trapped in a bottle? What does it do there? It will travel round, may be for two or three times, and then quietly sit at the surface to revive its lost energy. When you observe the fly for quite sometime, you will realize that it ends up its life without finding the way out. Now as a true human observing that desperate poor being, do you feel like helping it out? Do you see it as meaningful to show the fly the way out. Otherwise, you are such human who doesn’t care who-so-ever is falling victim of its destiny. If you are the first one, then the philosophy by Viennese philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein would be of your help.
Who is Ludwig Wittgenstein?
To say in brief, Ludwig Wittgenstein was one of the greatest philosopher of the 20th century. He was not a celebrated philosopher during his decade and perhaps, he would say,
I feel I am writing for people who would think in a different way, breathe a different air of life, from that of a present day men.Ludwig Wittgenstein
Well! the reason for which he was saying so is because he was formulating the advance philosophy during the time which was in dire need of simplest understandings. Thus, Wittgenstein philosophy is valuable for present day students who would like to explore the objectives of studying philosophy.
Fly and Bottle Vs Humans and Physical world
To understand the metaphorical term, “fly” and the “bottle”, we would be relating it to humanity and its problems of the physical world. The bottle signifies the limited physical world that has failed multiple times to provide valid reasons for our intellectual inquisitiveness. The study of limited world has helped very less to find the sufficient reasons for the purpose of our existence. Therefore, there is a high need to look beyond our limitations to reach to the aspects of truths. Now if humans are ‘fly’, and in case, they are trapped in their limited space and time, then who is going to show them the right path to come out of this circumstance. According to Wittgenstein, only the philosophers could show humans the right path with their Metaphysical quest and Epistemological stance. This presents the true meaning of philosophy which is suitable for exploring the truth by meaningful inquiry and effective dialogues.
Why Philosophers should Philosophize?
This should not a question for you; but a clear answer that philosophers should initiate such philosophies because humans won’t remain trapped inside their comforting physical world. One may reach to the cause, and look for the origin of existence. One may understand the core to get a link to the on-going natural laws, and one may find its source of need fulfilment and know the reasons for its growing line.
Showing the right way to people, in a more benefiting terms, could also be classified as counseling. Counseling is the way to find solution to a problem. It is the method to reach to the problem source to find the solution. We regularly need philosophical and psychological counselors because we need to look at the problems with universal outlook rather than individual perspectives. Individually, we won’t reach at the roots of problems but universally we could study its all-round perspectives. There could be other factors to look for counselors that you shouldn’t feel biased for your problems and examine it with understanding its entire hope and scope. Like counseling, there are the treatments which could made you heal inside-out. The role of therapists in leading you to the other world of knowledge couldn’t be neglected. They light the lamp to your world of darkness or they help you to find your own light within.
Knowing or absorbing what others have is always fruitful. You might say that you are experienced personality and you don’t require anyone’s advice on the matter. However, you are nourishing your inner ego in this process which is restricting your way to achieve more out of this world. Therefore, to know more we should very well try our level best to nourish the inner self by providing the additional elements available outside. The additions could enlarge your vision and would help in all possible ways to discover way out of this trap of physical world.
At the last, I would just say that Wittgenstein idea is not at all crazy. It is the approach to look beyond our visible path. It is taking the available advices to make our life better. It is to trust the knowledge provided by the researchers and get understanding from their experiences. Thus, showing the fly the way out of bottle is something only an authentic philosophers could look ahead for.
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INTERNATIONAL WEBINAR on ‘Artistic transcendence from beauty to faith – Relevance of Ananda Kentish Coomaraswamy” & launch of virtual exhibition “A Selective exposition on Ananda K Coomaraswamy collection of Cultural Archives IGNCA”
Date: Sep 9, 2021 04:00-07:00 PM India time
Register in advance for this webinar:https://us02web.zoom.us/webinar/register/WN_PpVHc4ABRLWEag0EcF6ejg
After registering, you will receive a confirmation email containing information about joining the webinar.
Please feel free to circulate it to your contacts and those interested in attending it. Up to 1000 participants can join on zoom. Besides it will also be live on IGNCA Facebook live.
I would be speaking on “Coomaraswamy’s Existential reflection on the idea of Beauty” from 6.10 PM to 6.30 PM . Kindly join the program! For any queries, feel free to contact me.
PhD Scholar, University of Mumbai
I came across a girl who was crying continuously for half an hour. On finding the reason I was almost shocked. Her results were out and she scored 99.9% of marks and still, she was crying because she missed some 0.1% of her target. I started wondering about the reason people misinterpret happiness. Is happiness real or turned into a big joke?
Generally, Happiness means the state of contentment or fulfilment. It’s a feeling of inner satisfaction with the achievement of a task or target. Thinking logically, the real definition of happiness should be enjoyed in the process of initiation or completion of a task, it should be an excitement for the doing of activity, it should be a motivation to stick to the task at all cost, it should be a zeal to stay focused for the sake of enriching the values of life.
On the contrary, all we prefer is final results. People are so worried about results that they stop enjoying and feeling a sense of fulfilment in the step-wise completion of a task. They forget about the pains, learnings, excitement in the taking of small steps. I have realized that the criteria for celebrating life are very limited. One doesn’t feel like a celebration at all because the final marks are low than the assumed targets or due to facing failure at the final stage. All these have made me think and write something serious about the sense of achievement. If I tell you that happiness in the results is for very less moment and happiness in the process is more. Would you still prefer to cry after the failure in reaching goals?
Achievements, according to my perspective, is a sense of fulfilment in the processes than the final results. It may be true that the failure could incur a big loss, but why do we forget the learnings we collected throughout the process? Why do we just leave behind the satisfaction we felt each night studying hard for exams or why do we feel disappointed for the cause that we worked hard and enhanced our skills? Is happiness is just to cross a line or is it gratification in reaching up to the line? Happiness is such a vast philosophy that we must not limit its sense. Obviously, disappointment for the cause of non-achievement is probable. But disappointment to the cause of non-satisfaction with life is sickness. Happiness is a set of unlimited stages. To this, failure could be linked to the missing one or two criteria for reaching success. It doesn’t mean feeling stupid, sick or nothingness within. It is perhaps the fact that some knowledge is lacking which could be fulfilled by applying more focus, attention and intention to the cause. The judging of our worth should never be based upon the limitations in achievements. The sense of fulfilment should always be maintained well whether the targeted factors are achieved or not.
I would just say that WE SHOULD STOP JUDGING OURSELVES. It is mostly observed that before anyone judges us, we ourselves start providing judgments. This could lead to fading of the reasons for happiness. The best solution is to set our judgments rights no matter what others say. This would always make us feel proud and strong in the targets we achieved or not.
कुछ खिड़कियों से मुझे भी झांकना है,
कुछ दूर खड़े इंसानों को,
बाजारी दुकानों को,
कुछ चौराहों की भीड़ को,
कुछ नुक्कड़ की बातो को।
कुछ खिड़कियों से मुझे भी झांकना है।
कुछ धूप की छाओ को,
बदलो की नाव को,
परिंदों के गाव को,
पौधों की आड़ से,
खिड़कियों से,मुझे भी ताकना है।
कुछ रूह रूमानी,बेपरवाह सी सासो को,
अलबेली मस्तानी,हसी ठिठोली ,किलकारियों को
प्यार से भरे ,नफरत की निगाहों को।
ये शाम ये सुबह के उगते लाल इशारों को।
मुझे भी ताकना है। कुछ खिड़कियों से मुझे भी झांकना है।
Before I leave my house, I always prefer to double check my bedroom switches and gas appliances to be off or not. I know it’s good to be sure for anything. But returning to room while stepping outside is something not everyone does. It has become a sort of addiction to me. When I closely examine all these, I feel it’s something more than addiction- and so closer to disease. Here, I am going to make a slight difference in meaning of both addiction and disease. I would be making a clear statement on ‘what is addiction?’ and ‘what is disease?’, and how we could be aware of not being diseased.
What is Addiction?
Addiction is a surplus amount of your energy spend on unwanted tasks which has no good for your personal growth. Perhaps, addictions could act as a barrier to your growth. It could challenge your natural inclinations towards life and could divert your will towards unnecessary selections. For example- You want to wake up early and practice morning walk but you couldn’t do so, because you spend your night time by being glued to your phone screen. Addictions are intentional clogging to your mental abilities. It stops your abilities to discern between right and wrong. However, addictions could also be your choice in life. It could be your routine or the way you would like to spend your life. It could be your happiness and the reason to live. It could be your favourite habits and patterns of living. Addictions, sometimes, become so well settled that they could leave no space in between your actual self and personal identity. For example, a youtuber addicted to its passion may rarely find his time outside his blogging world. In such situations, you would like to forcefully impose the substance of addiction to be available to you at the space and time you desire.
How addictions turns into a disease?
In case, your inclinations could not work independently to your substance of addictions, then it turns into a disease. For instance, if you couldn’t pass your day without encountering your addicted stuff, then you are most likely to feel hopeless and useless. There is a very thin line between addictions as a habit or disease. In the case of habit, it sometimes feels alright to miss your habit for a day or twice. In the case of being used to daily sips of coffee, you would be unlikely to be called addicted (in the sense of disease) on switching sometimes to tea or juice. Addiction is a habit if you do it regularly. On the other hand, your addictions become your disease if you “necessarily” or “compulsorily” do it regularly. The concepts of “necessity” could change definitions of habits from addictions to disease. The concept of necessity brings an impositions to your actions. To avoid impositions, it’s alright if you miss some rigid patterns of living.
Addiction is fine to a certain limit
Let’s examine an area from our life when we feel fine to be addicted. Some people are an achiever in their life, achievement lies in their nerves. They are called addicted to success and achievements. They could not digest failures. They have a clear vision on how to keep achieving heights and they do keep proper track of it. There are other groups of people who are addicted to challenges in life. They will do super daring things to feel a kick beneath their core. They are the groups of people who love taking challenges and risks. They play deadly games with their life because they feel they have a hunger for it. I would mention the other kinds of addictions where curiosity drives a person to achieve an intellectual operation. Such people are addicted to inspecting the theories, the contraries, and the unending phenomenon of life.
Now the three addictions I mentioned here looks normal. Isn’t it? It may seem absolutely fine to be an extraordinary achiever, a courageous and daring personality, and a bookworm in life. All this appears as a normal habit or a pattern of living. There might not be an issue for anyone to encounter such lists of people in their lives. Many of our friends or relatives might be under such categories and we feel absolutely right to interact with them.
Crossing limits of addictions turns into disease
Now let’s turn the table down. Suppose our achiever starts engaging in foul play to the cause of winning the race. Secondly, the die-hard challenge-seeker starts breaking the laws by exceeding the speed limits of his vehicle, and our intellectual genius starts skipping the diets for the fear of missing the focus of his ongoing research. These three members start altering the normal behaviour to the unmeasurable dimensions sounding closer to the term disease or sickness. On the way of their conduct, these three members start spoiling their social health, physical health and mental health. In another way, we see the excess of anything would lead to disease. Having an addiction to a moderate amount seems fine unless it causes major changes to our body, mind and self.
Addicted- let’s do a quick test?
To find out your level of addictions, You may try doodling joint lines on your notebook each time you have an inner craving. You may note the total number of lines at the end of the week and assess whether your addiction is just fine or diseased.
Balance of passion and vision- Learn from leaders
To have a better understanding of addictions and disease, we may study the life of following leaders and then really choose to live a balanced life of passion and vision.
Mary Kom, Indian Boxer, the Only female boxer with a medal in each one of the first seven World Championships, Padma Vibhushan
Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), Indian Poet, Writer, Philosopher, Composer and Painter
Kalpana Chawla (1961-2003), First woman of Indian origin to go to space
Ratan Tata, Indian Industrialist, Philanthropist and Former Chairman of Tata Group
Thank you so much for making it on your list to visit our site and spending time reading this post. In case, you would like to bring a new dimension to addictions and disease, feel free to comment. You would also like to check our Webpage Instagram Facebook Twitter Linkedin .
Stay happy. Stay connected!
Migration is the moving of people or community from one location to other. It could be voluntary migration or involuntary migration. It could be temporary or permanent. It could bring contentment or major psychological distress. There are many perspectives on the cause of migration. In this essay, we will look at the need for migration, its causes, challenges, consequences, as well as migrants’ psycho-physical behaviour.
Types of Migration
- Voluntary Migration– It is the case when people voluntary chooses to migrate from one location to other for the purpose of higher education, high wages, maintaining standards of life, to improve health conditions, to enjoy modern facilities(as seen in rural migrating to urban area), to support family, and for the reason of self-esteem.
- Involuntary Migration / Forced Migration– There are the cases of trafficking, false hope of jobs, promises of better life, illegal exports of human resources, using humans as means, unwilling exodus, etc. All these is an involuntary actions which might not be the reasonable choice of migrants.
Why do people Migrate ?
People migrate for higher wages, high priority jobs, passion-fulfillment, to meet family needs, to experience different cultures, to enjoy nature’s treat, and to make an amazing memory of life. To migrate from a place to place takes a lot of efforts and so it’s really important to plan well before a permanent decision is made on migration. To travel across Nations, there is so much of legal formalities that one needs to meet out. To travel from state to state, one has to screw his head for finding good place, proper food , and good neighbors. Despite economic needs, there is also psychological desire for the cause of migration. Some people develops a connection to there native place, and when it’s about leaving hometown a emotional turbulences is created. To come out of emotional ups-downs, one needs a good mental strength and tendency to look ahead in life. There is also the cases when people migrate for health reasons. Some countries are too hot or too cold, and the inhabitants with critical health necessarily requires to shift to a new place. It is also the reason of education that people prefer migrating to cities to get their children quality education. The non-availability of proper resources at a place also makes a person to shift from one location to other. Safety and security concerns too make people to migrate from one location to other. The language is other issue which makes people to leave the places and move to location where same language speaking people are found.
Positive impacts of Migration
Migration could bring a new challenges and new hope to improve the way of life. It is a new start of journey – a changing reality. It is the emerging of new expectations and generating new strengths to cope up with the challenges of life. Some people might feel excited to meet new neighbors, adjust to new environments, explore traveling destination, decorate house once again, and eager to make fresh memories ahead. They feel rejuvenated to receive different options in life. They feel happiness in switching job, receiving high packages, improving standards of life, meeting materialistic desires, and adopting a new patterns of living. A addition of new lists of friends creates a new thrill and opportunities to enjoy life differently. New culture could bring excitement and a new flavors to life. Overall, the happiness is doubled as a result of the positive impacts of migration.
Negative impacts of Migration
The cause of migrations could bring a deep impressions on the psychology of people. They could have mental dilemma for the cause of adjustment to new social and environmental conditions. For some people, it becomes difficult to return back to routine life. There may be a gap in the routine activity. Frequent changes in social life could bring a disturbed mind states. There could be a lots of challenges in finding good job, food, clothing, and other necessary materials for living. The health could be affected by change in climates. Some people might face problem in adapting to a total new laws and cultures. Facing new neighbors and society could also be a challenging elements for some. All these were the problems of voluntary migration. The involuntary migration has to face a whole lot of problems from personal, social, psychological, moral, ethical, geographical, legal, etc.
Mobile Car- A dream or Reality
Mobile car or house on wheels is a trending concepts gaining popularity mostly among the millennials or youth population. This is the voluntary form of migration where people chooses to live at a different surroundings rather staying at a same place. The architectural industry is on boom due to the various demands of less expensive moderation of cars into homes. People like to feel homely when they travel from one location to other. They expect all the useful items to be available to them so that they could really enjoy the journey while taking appropriate breaks. They could halt at a wonderful location and enjoy the beauty of nature. They could form a meaningful connections to the nature around. They have the choice to demonstrate their feelings at the highest level. Their self- esteem are elevated by choosing to live in the way they desire. The existential motivation to travel and live life is achieved. The freelancers mostly chooses to live their life by randomly switching their patterns and conditions of living. When people live the nomadic kind of life, their attributes of possessiveness to material or substantial life declines. In this way, their is a high chances of meeting or identifying the spiritual goals of humans. This concepts of living life is a dream for some but a cause of worry for others. Some other groups feel that living away from society could raise concerns for security, child’s education, social values, territorial disputes. Some would have to face local arguments, legal hurdles, and challenging systems. They might face housing shortages and they have to do away with the welfare schemes. When their is extreme emergency like health or disaster, the helpline services might not be availed of. In all this discomforts, if a person could find happiness in living this way, then it is all the passions which has a role to play. A passionate person could face any sort of challenges to live a life of desire. He is ready to cherish his dream on the cause of multiple sacrifices. To convert the concept of dream into reality- passion is very significant. Here I will be showing the pictures where one could have an idea on the concept of mobile cars. Readers are free to comment their views on this latest methods of living.
I’d also like to thank everyone who has helped us organise weekly webinars, and I cordially invite you all to attend the session of learning and sharing.
Film and Entertainment are important part of today’s culture. It makes sense to reflect upon the vast impact an entertainment piece brings on human behavior. The impacts is social, psychological, ethical, moral, scientific, and personal.
Though cinema learning, we develop preparedness, understanding, maturity, new habits, trending styles, and many more. Films influences our language, our beliefs, and other normative aspects. We know ‘what’, ‘how’, ‘why’, when’, ‘where’ through absorbing different perspectives of film cultures.
Socially, our interaction patterns gets highly influenced. We adopt different greeting styles, we get idea of various gestures, and we gain awareness of the different expressions.
Physically, we crave for fit body, fine curves, stylistic and smart appearance. We desire fitness modules of exercises, dances, cardio, yoga, etc.
Psychologically, our beliefs gets expanded, we are ready to leave orthodoxy, stereotypical beliefs, narrow mindedness and acceptance to diverse cultures gets strong. We develop new insights and our place in society reach to a higher level.
Ethically, we are aware of rights and wrongs, we are ready to take our decisions, the dependencies and the fixed trend starts declining.
In special influences, the vulnerable category of women’s, LGBT, handicapped gets the attention as well as opportunities to stand equally among other groups.
The marketing approach has improved with the advent of film industry. With different forms of marketing techniques taking attention of masses, the competition has increased. This has alerted the producer to focus on quality and pricings of their products.
Personally, we have changed a lot- our attitude, profession, educational choice, and marriage ideology has widely affected by the rising of film industry.
The ethical and moral area of human behavior has developed quite well with the learnings from cinema.
Negative Impacts of Cinema
Apart from positive impacts, it’s important to understand the negative sides of filmy world. Being so overly inspired to film characters and in the process of imitating dialogues, one could lose self-identity. One might also feel suffocated on not being able to achieve the flimsy or illusionary world of cinema. There are many cases where a person has distorted its body by surgery, food habits, and excess exercise to look alike his favorite character. One might even start procrastinating real work on addiction to reel world. One may start day-dreaming and miss the passing opportunities of life. One may surround oneself to cool looking people involved in drinking, drugs, bad habits, and missing the substantial attributes of life. One might get attached to materialistic life and miss the essential spiritual nourishments. At last, one might forget to differentiate between facts and actuality, and develop multiple personality and other dangerous disorders. It’s clear that cinema has both positive and negative side. It’s completely on us how we find balance between rights and wrongs, or the appearance and actuality.
What makes a film popular and how our choices are trapped?
A film is popular because of its visual effects, audience polls, entertainment, TRP, Political pressure, fans following, projection of the social issues, historical-cultural relevance, reality check, use of dialogues, different insights, and focus on styles and genres. Nowadays, film makers take special care of the psychology of audience. They will have full research on audience likings, time to release the show, duration of telecast, intensity of roles, platforms to advertise, way to enhance the interest of movie watchers, and so on. This way they are completely trapping audience choice towards cinema. They are stimulating the audience mind to follow the values and lessons projected through the medium of films. They are ruling upon an individual’s conscience. They are not letting an individual to develop an individual’s course of thinking, but they are entirely imposing beliefs upon them. This is the sad reality of cinema. To overcome this issue, it’s always important to have an options of what kinds of film to watch, how long to watch, and at what circumstances to watch. This might help us to restrict ourselves from undervaluing reality and finding a proper balance in between both the worlds of reel and real.
Degradation of Art in Cinema
In all these webs of positive and negative impacts, we must not forget the history of cinema. The history of cinema has remained informative, projecting social causes, enhancing morality, highlighting important figures, and so on. However, the degradation of art in cinema is a major area of concern. The concepts of sexuality, eroticism, attraction, love, romance, addiction, freedom, individual life are overtly shown which encourages a person to opt for all this by defying the conditions of society. This could be a plus point for individual happiness, but for universal happiness it acts as a barrier to path.
In all these perspectives, we understand that cinema and its studies could do wonder to human life. It is the imparting of maximum values in short duration of time. It is the absorbing of diverse facts and digesting the appropriate one. With this, we must take proper care to make a balance between the life of entertainment and reality, and we must secure ourselves to not mix both.
Ps: All these points were discussed in our Philotreat Weekly group Talk. The idea here belongs to participants who enthusiastically interacted on “Films and its impacts on human behavior.”
Sometimes we consider MEANS to be the most important step in judging the action right. For example- In an exam, if a person scores good grades, then we feel proud. In contrast, if a same person has cheated to get a good grade, we feel opposite.
Sometimes we think END to be the most important step in judging an action right. If a thief has saved a toddler from road accident, we are amazed on his present action and then we don’t count his past action.
What to prefer?
MEANS or END phenomenon is very interesting. Sometimes you support MEANS and some time you feel END is better. It’s completely a choice of your situations, conditions, characters, values, and demands. To study means or end adequately is not possible. For this reason, we may divide its studies into various chunks of theories for its better understandings.
Means is right, End is wrong
Example – Helping a blind man to cross street only to realise that film shooting is going on.
Means is wrong, End is right
Example- Throwing a stone at neighbour’s window glass to trouble him and ending up in helping to escape fire smoke.
Right Means and End, still failure
Example- Working hard in a factory to earn money for family. But the factory got raided for illegal operations making you to face overall trouble.
Let’s dive deep into some terms in understanding means or end.
- Consequentialism– It is a theory which believe in consequences or results as the ultimate factor in deciding the rights or wrongs of a particular case. Its role is mostly observed in legal subjects to decide on final judgements. For example- a murder in innocence or lack of intentionality will still be considered a murder and the punishment would definitely be conferred. The type of punishment to be given is considered after taking other factors based upon deontology and virtue ethics.
- Deontology– It means good and bad depends on the actions and not on its results. Kant believed that right morality is based on the principles of deontology and it is intrinsic. In case, a person is breaking signals on lonely road, then it will be announced as wrong on the principles of deontology.
- Utilitarianism – It considers the welfare of large sections of society. With the utilitarian perspectives, universally applicable law is created. For example- environmental projects, civilization projects, education schemes, farmers schemes, etc.
- Idealism– For any action, you have some ideas behind it. It is your values or beliefs or thoughts that brings successful completion of an idea. The intention should be morally appropriate. Here end is pre-determined, and means is uncertain. Example: A person wants to win gold medal in country’s sport would do all hardships to make it possible.
- Hedonism– In modern hedonism, nothing is considered as end, but means to end of happiness. Charvaka promoted hedonism or pleasure theory to judge every cause. They believe we receive one life, and we should do anything to maximise pleasure. In hedonist principles, drinking, loud music, late night parties are allowed because it makes a person happy.
- Gandhian Means or End -Mahatma Gandhi has promoted moral means to achieve an end. For him, achieving virtue is the main award. We can foresee means and have a control over it. However, we couldn’t control end. So, we should take care of means, end will take care of itself.
Let’s understand Means or End through some eye-opening examples (It is just for general opinions. The views may vary from person to person)
In present times, space tourism has turned into a luxury than needs. Rich people are spending millions or trillions to secure their seat in a space shuttle and poor people are left behind to look at skies and make prayer to invisible entities. How much right is the means of luxury to reach the end of finding life beyond Earth?
In an interview we speak white lies. We hide our blots, failures, and moments of misfortunes. We only reveal the goody-goody things. How far the means of harmless lies is valid to secure a good employment position?
We buy expensive materials from malls or shopping complexes. And then we complain to poor seller of too much price? How far our approach is correct?
I hope you enjoyed this overall outline on means and ends. Feel free to look into the matter with different perspectives. This article is my personal analysis. Therefore, I apologise for any divergence from conventional viewpoints. Thank you for taking the time to read my post.